Manuscript Submission GuidelinesSubmit a Manuscript
About Journal of Dental Sleep Medicine
Journal of Dental Sleep Medicine (JDSM) is the official, peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (AADSM). This quarterly, online publication keeps dentists informed on scientific developments that are important to their patients. JDSM presents the best research and key information on dental sleep medicine and the broader domain of sleep-related breathing disorders, in a clinically useful format. The journal publishes original cutting-edge science in the growing and evolving field of dental sleep medicine, as well as case studies, reviews and clinical commentaries. JDSM focuses on the publication of papers with direct applicability and/or relevance to the practice of dental sleep medicine and clinical sleep medicine. In addition, JDSM will publish proceedings from conferences, workshops and symposia on topics related to the practice of dental sleep medicine.
The Editor-in-Chief and/or an Associate Editor first determines if a submitted manuscript is suitable for review and publication. Manuscripts are then sent for peer review to reviewers who are selected based on their expertise related to the particular manuscript. After reviews are submitted, a recommendation of accept, reject or revise (for further consideration) is made by the Associate Editor to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision. Manuscripts are reviewed with due respect for the author's confidentiality. At the same time, reviewers also have rights to confidentiality, which are respected by the editors. The editors ensure both the authors and the reviewers that the manuscripts sent for review are privileged communications and are the private property of the author. When submitting a manuscript for consideration for publication, authors may suggest the names of potential reviewers to invite and/or exclude.
If a manuscript is returned to the author(s) for revisions, all resubmissions must follow the instructions for submitting a manuscript and include the following:
- Both a clean copy and a redlined copy of the revised submission. NOTE: If the redlined copy was created using “track changes” mode in Word, please create a PDF file of the redlined version and upload the PDF file. If you are not able to create a PDF file of your redlined version, please use alternative font colors or highlighting tools in Word to show the redlined changes – not “track changes” mode.
- The corresponding author must also upload a letter (Corresponding Author’s Rebuttal) responding to each of the points made by the reviewers. The deadline for submission of a revised manuscript needing major revisions is two months from the date of the notice. For minor revisions, the deadline for resubmission is one month. There is no guarantee that a revised manuscript will be accepted for publication.
The editorial office carefully monitors papers submitted to JDSM for plagiarism. All submitted manuscripts will be compared to published papers using similarity checking software (iThenticate). Plagiarism includes literal copying - reproducing a work word for word, in whole or in part, without permission and acknowledgment of the original source; paraphrasing - reproducing someone else's ideas while not copying word for word, without permission and acknowledgment of the original source; substantial copying - copying images, or data from other sources; text-recycling - reusing substantial amounts of text from your own previous publications.
Any text contained in a manuscript that is directly copied from another source must be placed within quotation marks and the original source must be properly cited. If a paper captures the essence of a previously published work, that work should be cited. If any paraphrasing is included, the source must be properly referenced and the meaning intended by the source must not be changed. All works that may have inspired a study’s design or manuscript structure must be properly cited.
If plagiarism is detected during any part of the peer-review process, the manuscript may be rejected. For published papers where plagiarism is detected, the journal reserves the right to issue a correction or retract the paper, whichever is deemed appropriate. The journal reserves the right to inform authors' institutions about plagiarism detected either before or after publication.
Author Agreement Letter – Required Upon Acceptance
Upon acceptance, all authors of an accepted manuscript will receive an email informing them that their paper has been provisionally accepted and will be accepted upon the receipt of an “Author Agreement Form” from all authors within seven business days. The Author Agreement Form requires authors to assign copyright to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AADSM), declare their involvement in the development of the manuscript and attest to their review and approval of the final manuscript. The corresponding author will be responsible for disseminating this form to all authors, collecting the completed forms and uploading the forms into the manuscript submission system. Should ALL forms not be returned within the specified time frame, the manuscript will be automatically rejected.
Copyediting and Proofreading
All accepted manuscripts are subject to manuscript editing for conciseness, clarity, grammar, spelling and JDSM style. After acceptance all manuscripts will be copyedited and page proofs will be developed. The page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for review and approval. These proofs will be expected to return their corrections or approval of these proofs within the timeframe given in the correspondence. It is the authors’ responsibility to keep their account in Editorial Manager current and to notify the JDSM Editorial Office (firstname.lastname@example.org) of any changes in contact information after a paper has been accepted.
All materials are submitted and edited electronically. To submit a manuscript, please go here: www.editorialmanager.com/jdsm. The AADSM is not responsible in the event that any manuscript, or any part thereof, is lost. Articles cannot be concurrently submitted or published by any other publication, print or electronic. Accepted manuscripts become the permanent property of the AADSM and may not be published elsewhere without written permission from the AADSM. All accepted manuscripts and supporting documents are subject to manuscript copyediting for conciseness, clarity, grammar, spelling, and JDSM journal style.
- Categories of Manuscripts
- Essential Elements of Manuscript Submission
- Manuscript Format
- Details of Style
- Figure Guidelines
- Table Guidelines
- Supplemental Materials Guidelines
The following types of manuscripts are accepted:
Original articles are reports of clinical or laboratory investigations or case series of direct relevance to dental sleep medicine. Original articles are also general sleep medicine investigations that have relevance to dental sleep medicine practitioners and researchers. Below are some guidelines:
- Typically, original articles will contain new data derived from a series of patients or subjects.
- There are no minimum length requirements for original articles. In general, original articles should not exceed 5,000 words.
- A structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required.
- References should be limited to no more than 50.
- The structured abstract, references, tables and figures are not included in the 5,000-word limit.
- Original articles should include no more than eight tables/figures.
Review articles usually bring together important information on a topic of general interest to a dental sleep medicine practitioner. Authors who have ideas for such articles are advised to contact the Editor-in-Chief at email@example.com to ensure that a similar work has not already been submitted. Below are some guidelines:
- Reviews are not intended to be a forum for the presentation of new data.
- The main text of the review should not exceed 7,500 words.
- A structured abstract of no more than 250 words is required.
- The structured abstract, references, tables and figures are not included in the 7,500-word limit.
Case reports present unique, unusual or important clinical observations of interest to dental sleep medicine practitioners. Below are some guidelines:
- Case reports should be organized with the following sections: Introduction, report of case, discussion, references and table/figure.
- An unstructured abstract of no more than 150 words is required.
- References should be limited to no more than six.
- No more than one table.
Dental sleep medicine pearls are brief descriptions and discussions of interesting laboratory findings, or brief descriptions of a case with significant teaching value. Below are some guidelines:
- Pearls should include a patient history, the results of any laboratory findings and end with a summary of the treatment strategy.
- The pearl should conclude with two to three significant teaching points.
- Pearls should not exceed 500 words in total length.
- References should be limited to no more than two.
- No more than one table or one figure.
Letters to the Editor
Brief letters (maximum of 500 words, including references; no tables or figures) will be considered if they include the notation “for publication.” A letter must be signed by all of its authors. Case reports should not be submitted as letters, but rather as formal case reports. Letters commenting on an article published in JDSM must be received within 10 weeks of the article’s publication. Letters received after the deadline will not be considered for publication. Accepted letters will be sent to the authors of the original manuscript for reply. Such letters must include the title and author of the manuscript and the month and year of publication. Letters that do not meet these specifications will be returned unreviewed. JDSM will notify authors about the disposition of their letters.
JDSM will consider for publication manuscripts in other areas as special reports. These include medical, political or economic commentary; perspectives on the history of medicine; technical considerations in oral appliance therapy; and dental sleep medicine practice issues. Authors are advised to contact the Editor-in-Chief at firstname.lastname@example.org to discuss their concepts for these manuscripts before submitting.
On occasion, the Editor-in-Chief will solicit commentaries. Should you have a suggestion for a commentary, please contact the Editor-in-Chief at email@example.com.
Each submitted manuscript must address the following elements:
Clinical Trial Registration
JDSM requires that all clinical trials, regardless of when they were completed, and all partial and secondary analyses of original clinical trials must be registered before submission of a manuscript based on the trial. Trials must have been registered at or before the onset of patient enrollment for any clinical trial that began patient enrollment on or after February 1, 2007. The trial name, URL, and identification number should be included at the end of the manuscript abstract. The following trial registries are acceptable:
- Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: http://anzctr.org.au/
- Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR): http://www.ChiCTR.org.cn
- Clinical Trials (service of NIH): http://www.clinicaltrials.gov
- Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI):http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/login.php
- German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS): http://www.germanctr.de
- ISRCTN Register: http://isrctn.org
- Nederlands Trial Register (NTR): http://www.trialregister.nl
- UMIN Clinical Trials Registry: http://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr
Ethics of Investigation
Authors should specify within the manuscript whether ethical standards were used in their research. If results of an experimental investigation in human or animal subjects are reported, the manuscript should describe the approval by an institutional review board on human or animal research and the appropriate informed consent procedures for human subjects. If approval by an institutional review board is not possible, then information must be included indicating that clinical experiments conform to the principles outline by the Declaration of Helsinki.
Privacy and Informed Consent
Authors must omit from their manuscripts, figures, tables and supplemental material any identifying details regarding patients and study participants, including patients’ names, initials, Social Security numbers, or hospital numbers. If there is a possibility that a patient may be identified in text, figures, photos or video, authors must obtain written informed consent for use for in publication of print, online, and licensed uses of JDSM, from the patient or parent or guardian and provide copies of the consent forms to JDSM. In such cases where the patient may be identified, authors must indicate that they have obtained informed consent in their manuscript. In addition, all authors are responsible for ensuring that their manuscript, figures, tables and supplemental material comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)(www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa).
All authors listed on the manuscript should have participated sufficiently in the work and analysis of data, as well as the writing of the manuscript to be listed as a co-author. All authors should have read and approved the final version. All authors will be required to attest to their involvement and approval of the final version prior to publication of the manuscript. The title page should state that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript. For guidelines on authorship, please refer to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. More than one corresponding author is permitted for each manuscript, and both authors will appear on the correspondence line on the final article. However, only one can be considered the corresponding author in the manuscript submission system; thus, only the author entered in the system as the corresponding author will receive automated messages, such as editors’ decisions and page proofs.
By submitting a manuscript to the journal, the authors affirm that it is an original manuscript, is unpublished work, and is not under consideration elsewhere.
Authorship and "Umbrella" groups
Many large collaborative studies are organized under a group name that represents all the participants. All articles must have at least one named individual as author. Authors who wish to acknowledge the umbrella group from which the data originated should list the authors of the article, followed by "on behalf of the [GROUP NAME]". The members of the group should be listed individually in the acknowledgments section.
Conflict of Interest
On the manuscript's title page, all authors must disclose any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated--including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual author(s) or for the associated department(s) or organization(s), personal relationships, or direct academic competition. When considering whether a conflicting interest or connection should be disclosed, please consider the conflict of interest test: Is there any arrangement that would embarrass you or any of your co-authors if it was to emerge after publication and you had not declared it? If the manuscript is published, conflict of interest information, including if none was declared, will be communicated in a statement in the published paper. Any changes made to the list of conflicts after the paper is accepted must be submitted in writing, signed by the appropriate authors (that is, the corresponding author and the author for whom the conflict exists), to the JDSM editorial office.
In order to reproduce any third-party material (including tables, figures, or images) in an article authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder and be compliant with any requirements the copyright holder may have pertaining to this reuse. When seeking to reproduce any kind of third-party material authors should request the following:
- non-exclusive rights to reproduce the material in the specified article and journal;
- print and electronic rights, preferably for use in any form or medium;
- the right to use the material for the life of the work; and
- world-wide English-language rights.
It is particularly important to clear permission for use in both the print and online versions of the journal. JDSM is not able to accept permissions which carry a time limit because articles are retained permanently in the online journal archive.
All manuscripts must be created in Microsoft Word, double spaced, have one-inch margins (top, bottom, and sides), and include page numbers. Figures should not be included in the manuscript, but should be uploaded separately. Manuscripts should be structured using the following components:
The title page must include the following:
- Title and Subtitle (if applicable)
- Authors (first name, last name, degrees and affiliations)
- Corresponding author’s full address and corresponding author’s current Email
- Institution where work was performed
- A statement that all authors have seen and approved the manuscript
- Declarations for each author:
- Financial support (presence or absence)
- Off-label or investigational use (if applicable)
- Conflict of interest (presence or absence) defined as any financial interests or connections, direct or indirect, or other situations that might raise the question of bias in the work reported or the conclusions, implications, or opinions stated--including pertinent commercial or other sources of funding for the individual authors or for the associated departments or organizations, personal relationships, or direct academic competition for each author.
- Declare if the manuscript reports on a clinical trial, and if so, provide the necessary clinical trial registration information: The trial name, URL, and identification number. See Essential Elements of Manuscript Submissions.
- Number of tables
- Number of figures
- Abstract word count (if applicable)
- Manuscript word count
Each original or review article must be preceded by a structured abstract. The abstract is limited to 250 words. The components of this format are (start each on a new line): Study Objectives, Methods, Results, Conclusions and Keywords. Conclusions should not simply restate results, but should address the significance and implications of the findings. Abstracts should include as few abbreviations as possible. Please provide no fewer than three but no more than ten keywords that reflect the content of your manuscript. For guidance consult the Medical Subject Headings - Annotated Alphabetic List, published each year by the National Library of Medicine.
State the object of research with reference to previous work.
Describe methods in sufficient detail so that the work can be duplicated, or cite previous descriptions if they are readily available.
Describe results clearly, concisely, and in logical order. When possible give the range, standard deviation, or standard error of the mean, and statistical significance of differences between numerical values.
Interpret the results and relate them to previous work in the field. Include a paragraph near the end of the discussion that briefly lists the limitations of the study.
Please provide on a separate page an alphabetical list of all abbreviations used with their full definition. Within the manuscript, each should be expanded at first mention and listed parenthetically after expansion.
The minimum compatible with the requirements of courtesy should be provided.
See Details of Style for references and citation formatting guidelines.
Figure Titles and Captions
Provide a short title for each figure included with the manuscript. This title should be no more than 20 words. Include the figure number in the title (eg, Figure 1—Flow chart of patient care). Provide a caption for each figure included with the manuscript. Give the meaning of all symbols and abbreviations used in the figure in the caption. For further guidelines see Figure Guidelines.
Include tables at the end of your manuscript. Each table should have a short title and caption. The title should be no more than 20 words. Include the table number in the title (eg, Table 1—Results of first night polysomnogram). For further guidelines, see Table Guidelines.
References and Citation Formatting
JDSM uses the AMA Manual of Style, 10th Edition. A brief summary of the formatting requirements follow, but please reference this source for specific detail.
- Each reference should be cited in the text, tables, or figures in consecutive numerical order by means of superscripted Arabic numerals placed outside periods and commas and inside colons and semicolons.
- When three or more references are cited at one place in the manuscript, a hyphen should be used to join the first and last numbers of a series; commas should be used without spaces to separate other parts of a multiple-reference citation.
- A standard bibliography program such as EndNote or Reference Manager may be used.
- JDSM uses abbreviated journal names in references; for abbreviations of journal names, refer to listings in the Pubmed database. Exclude periods following each abbreviated journal name word. Include a period at the end of the full journal name. See the Journal Article example below.
- Provide all authors' names when fewer than seven; when seven or more, list the first three and add et al.
- Provide journal article titles in sentence case, and provide inclusive page numbers.
Accuracy of reference data is the responsibility of the author. We cannot guarantee that citation/reference software will match all JDSM author guidelines. Failure to initially comply with JDSM’s style requirements may result in manuscripts returned to authors for correction and may potentially delay publication.
Sample Citations Within the Body of a Paper
- According to our previous work1,3-8,19
- The patients were studied as follows 3,4:
- Rainier S, Thomas D, Tokarz D, et al. Myofibrillogenesis regulator 1 gene mutations cause paroxysmal dystonic choreathetosis. Arch Neurol.2004;61(7):1025-1029.
- Modlin J, Jenkins P. Decision Analysis in Planning for a Polio Outbreak in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Pediatric Academic Societies; 2004.
Chapter of a Book:
- Solensky R. Drug allergy: desensitization and treatment of reactions to antibiotics and aspirin. In: Lockly P, ed. Allergens and Allergen Immunotherapy. 3rd ed. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 2004:585-606.
Website: Include as many of the following elements that are available. Author(s); Title of the specific item cited (if not given, give the name of the organization responsible for the site); Name of the website; URL (verify that URL is active and working); Published date; Updated date; and Accessed date. Example:
- International Society for Infectious Diseases. ProMED-mail website. http://www.promedmail.org. Accessed April 29, 2004.
Sleep Medicine Terminology
Follow the terminology usage recommendations in the AASM Style Guide for Sleep Medicine Terminology. Authors should use respiratory event index (REI) instead of using apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) when using home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The abbreviations are acceptable on second use within a document, after the abbreviation has been previously defined.
Use generic names in referring to drugs; trade names may be given in parentheses after the first mention, but the generic name should be used thereafter.
Submitted figures that do not meet journal guidelines may result in delays to the publication of a manuscript. The AADSM reserves the right to modify figures in order to meet journal guidelines. Include the number of figures on the title page of the manuscript submission.
- Figures must be a useful visualization of data that could not otherwise be accomplished in a few lines of text.
- The following graphics can be submitted as figures: charts, graphs, illustrations, and photographs.
- Figures must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals (eg, 1, 2, 3). Include the figure number in the figure’s filename.
- Each figure must have a corresponding short title and caption included in the manuscript text.
- All figures must make economical use of space. Large areas of white space are not acceptable (eg, axes of graphs extending beyond the relevant points needed to display data).
- The resolution of all figures must be a minimum of 300 dpi.
- Figures must be submitted in their final size. One-column figures have a maximum width of 3.3 inches and a maximum height of 8 inches. Two-column figures have a maximum width of 7 inches and a maximum height of 8 inches. Lengthy figure captions may require that the height of the figures be reduced.
- All figures must fall within the maximum height and width values and must be viewable without rotation.
- Figures must be submitted as .tif, .eps, or .pdf files. Figured embedded as images in a Word document are not acceptable for publication. PowerPoint files are not acceptable for publication. Charts and graphs that are built in a Word document or an Excel spreadsheet can be submitted as a Word .doc file or an Excel .xls file provided that a .pdf version accompany these files.
- Each figure must be self-contained and comprehensible without referring to the manuscript. This includes the following requirements:
- All symbols used in a figure must be defined for that figure (e.g, *, †). If a symbol is used in multiple figures, the definition of the symbol must also be repeated for every figure in which it appears. Symbols may be defined in a key within the figure or in the figure caption.
- All abbreviations used in a figure (including those used in the figure’s title and caption) must be defined in the figure caption. This includes abbreviations defined in the manuscript. If the same abbreviation is repeated in multiple figures, the definition of that abbreviation must be repeated for every figure in which it appears. Only the most widely recognized abbreviations are the exception to this rule.
- Type within figures must be consistent and legible when viewing the figure at its final size. The preferred font is Arial 9 pt. The use of italic and bold styling should only be used when meaningful (eg, differentiating between gene and protein names).
- Charts and graphs must be two-dimensional unless the data require a third dimension.
- Illustrations must be professionally drawn. Use color where appropriate. There is no charge for color.
- Visual representation of animal subjects through the use of illustrations is preferred to photographs.
- Photographs of subjects in which the individual is identifiable require a signed model release.
- Authors are responsible for obtaining full permission to publish figures for which they do not hold the copyright. Proof of this permission is required prior to publication. See Third-Party Copyright.
- The use of clip art and stock photography is not allowed.
Submitted tables that do not meet journal guidelines may result in delays in publication. The journal reserves the right to modify tables in order to meet journal guidelines. Include the number of tables on the title page of the manuscript submission.
- Tables must not duplicate data reported in the manuscript text or figures.
- All tables must be created using the table function in Microsoft Word. Tables created in PowerPoint are not acceptable. Tables submitted as images are not acceptable.
- Tables must be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited in the manuscript.
- Each table must have a corresponding short title above the table and caption below.
- Authors are responsible for obtaining full permission to publish tables that have been previously published. Proof of this permission is required prior to publication. Third-Party Copyright.
- Tables can be no more than 10 columns wide. Lengthy column headings may require that the number of columns be reduced.
- Tables can be no more than 45 rows tall. Lengthy captions may require that the number of rows be reduced.
- Each table should fit on one, letter-sized page in portrait orientation. If necessary, large datasets can be submitted as supplemental material.
- Each table must be self-contained and comprehensible without referring to the manuscript. This includes the following requirements:
- All symbols used in a table must be defined for that table (eg, *, †). If a symbol is used in multiple tables, the definition of the symbol must also be repeated for every table in which it appears. Symbols should be defined in the table caption.
- All abbreviations used in a table (including those used in the table title and caption) must be defined in the table’s caption. This includes abbreviations defined in the manuscript. If the same abbreviation is repeated in multiple tables, the definition of that abbreviation must be repeated for every table in which it appears. Only the most widely recognized abbreviations are the exception to this rule.
- Footnotes are acceptable in tables. Footnotes should clearly be marked with superscript lowercase letters or symbols in the table. Do not use numbers (Arabic or Roman numeral) to indicate a footnote. All footnotes should be fully expanded in the table caption.
Supplemental material can provide additional detail on study methods, or on data that are informative, but not critical to the aims of the study. However, indiscriminate or excessive use of supplemental material can also undermine the concept of a self-contained research paper by providing a place for critical material to get lost. It is the author’s responsibility to make sure that the main manuscript can be read and understood without reference to supplemental materials. Information that is essential to understanding the article must NOT be provided as supplemental material. While discouraging indiscriminate use of supplemental materials, some forms of data (videos and large datasets, explanations of data sources, details of computational algorithms) may be appropriately presented as supplemental material. All supplemental material must be succinct, organized carefully, and labeled appropriately.
Reviewers are instructed to review supplemental materials of reasonable length (eg, typical figures and tables) at the same level as the content of the main manuscript. Reviewers cannot reasonably be expected to review large supplemental data formats (eg, large databases). Reviewers are also asked to comment on the appropriateness of supplemental materials, including if they contain essential information that belongs in the main article and if they sufficiently enhance the presentation of the main article to justify inclusion. Readers are expected to communicate directly with the corresponding author about supplemental material, not with the Editor-in-Chief. No comments or critiques of supplemental material will be considered for publication in JDSM.
General Formatting Guidelines for Supplemental Material
Supplemental materials are not copyedited or formatted by JDSM, and therefore authors must ensure that all files are checked carefully before submission and that the style of figures and tables conforms to the recommendations spelled out in the manuscript submission guidelines for figures and tables. Refer to each piece of supplemental information within the text of the main manuscript using the file name and the term “supplemental material,” (eg, see Video 1 in the supplemental material).
Supplemental Figure and Table Guidelines
A maximum of four supplemental figures of no more than 5 MB in total are permitted per manuscript. Figures and tables should be numbered sequentially using the prefix “S” to differentiate them from figures and tables presented in the main manuscript (eg, see Figure S1 and Table S3 in the supplemental material).
Videos should be provided in .mp4 format. Videos submitted in alternate formats will be converted. File names should be as short as possible (eg, Video 1). Please provide a separate Microsoft Word file containing a description of the videos. Please keep the description as short as possible and ensure that the description is necessary for the comprehension of the videos. Releases signed by persons who appear in any video must be provided with the submission of videos. JDSM will not publish any video where persons can be identified without suitable permission forms on file.
Large datasets should only be submitted when necessary to support a manuscript’s conclusions, when solicited by JDSM’s Editors/Reviewers, or if the authors feel that the publication of the dataset is critical to advancing research in the field. These should be submitted as an Excel spreadsheet, which will be made available for download. The dataset will not be copyedited or formatted in any way by JDSM. It is the author’s responsibility to carefully check and correct any errors in the content or formatting of the dataset. Authors have the option of providing a link to large data sets and hosting them on their own website.
Last updated 5/1/2019